Mexico never had a chance to recover from the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, writes a Houston historian. That war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. For 15 million dollars, Mexico ceded some 55 percent of its prewar territory to the United States. A tight-fisted U.S. Congress said it was too much. The Treaty gave the U.S. what became all or part of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, the entire State of Texas that then included part of Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Oklahoma and New Mexico. The remaining southern part of Arizona, and part of southern New Mexico were purchased by the June 8, 1854, Gadsen Purchase for ten million. Near-endless negotiations were the job of Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the U.S. State Department. Trist persisted even after he was fired by the impatient President James K. Polk. The Treaty was signed by Trist, a civilian without official authority, and a Mexican federal representative. Congress whined about “formality.” But the deal was too good: Trist’s treaty was ratified.